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    Grey Levels

    With traditional AM dot (Amplitude Modulate, round cluster), #GL = (spi CtP / LPI screening)^2. ie: 4800 spi / 133 lpi (flexo) = 36^2 = 1,296 gray levels Formula does not apply for FM stochastic.
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    Formula values for the Pantone 4044

    You could scan the sample and get the CMYK from Photoshop. To increase accuracy, also scan a gray scale and white point balance on it in case your scanner is not calibrated.
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    Pharmaceutical Folding A plant in Lockport, NY near Buffalo
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    7cp with Equinox - which Pantone Solid colors are the least accurate?

    So, what was percentage for dE'00 <2.0, 2.5, 3.0?
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    7cp with Equinox - which Pantone Solid colors are the least accurate?

    Your software should be able to generate the Pantone Plus fan guide with ECG (Extended Color Gamut) and list the Delta E (dE) for each solid to process match.
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    package stock question

    It's a C1S, Coated One Side. Often called CCNB Clay Coated News Back.
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    Ink where it shouldn't be, plate blinding?

    Without knowing the true root cause, the only term I would use to describe this is the nonimage area or background is printing dirty. There are technical differences between catchup or dryup (not enough water), tinting and toning (too much water, look for wash/flood marks and over emulsified...
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    dry and wet ink for flexo and gravure

    So you want to calculate a flood coat weight. Weight before, Weight after, Subtract to find difference, Divide by area size, Calculate to whatever units you want., lbs, gram, inches, feet, etc. If on non-porous substrate (film, foil), can be done directly. If on paper or board, need to test on foil.
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    dry and wet ink for flexo and gravure

    Your ink supplier should be able to provide this info. Depends on anilox BCM (900 cpi & 2.1 BCM) and % solids of inks (solvent based ~20%).
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    color check 101

    You can use Substrate Corrected Colorimetric Aims (SCCA), which is a mathematical conversion.
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    color check 101

    The calibration is for not each different paper type, that's not necessary. The calibration is for just 3 broad general groups, gloss coated, (satin,matte,dull), and uncoated
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    color check 101

    Generic is for "close enough" dE'00 <= 5 @95% No, you measure SID & TVI. SID is Solid Ink Density, TVI is Tone Value Increase, dC is C* Chroma
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    color check 101

    How do you manage your color consistency in your printing environment? Calibration gets the color accurate, then process control keeps it consistent, repeatable. Do you fingerprint every press run setup? Each press is fingerprinted with 3 stocks, gloss, matte, uncoated. Purpose is to see how...
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    Thin lines appearing on plates

    Clarification: Lines are darker or lighter? Show in image or non-image area?
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    Web Press "Step" program for registration?

    You print a register grid test form, scan it, then software adjust for any distortions (fan out). I think Heidelberg has a version.
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    Formula values for the Pantone 4044

    I assume your are looking for the CMYK process equivalents and not the ink formula? How old is you fan guide?
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    Offset ink density problems - help finding print consultant?

    Alois idea of asking a local printer to make measurements is a convenient idea. They or you could do it at their plant.
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    Distorting offset plates for growth compensation?

    Has paper grain direction been confirmed, should be grain long, parallel to press cylinders. Has press packing (thickness of plate, blanket, packing) been confirmed? Are individual ink colors progressively changing size and not fitting, or are all images fitting but just longer/shorter?
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    Offset ink density problems - help finding print consultant?

    To measure the solid ink density (SID) you will need to find printed image areas that are 1) 100 % solid and 2) large enough for the aperture window (~2.0mm). I assume you only have the finished books and don't have access to any QC flat press sheets or folded signatures?
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    Are Some PMS Colors Easier To Hit Than Others?

    Just for the record, the color difference between Pantone 400 and #7535 is NOT close! dE'00 = 6.8 #7535 is much yellower and darker

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